Most of the analysis is quite basic, and anyone who knows anything about genetics in Europe won’t see much new, but I want to note some of the highlights and give a picture of the history and peoples of Europe, including this group of men to whom I am related, haplogroup I1. There are some interesting conclusions.
The purpose of the paper is “to fill up the gap by analyzing data from published papers, linking data of genetics, archeology, linguistics, anthropology and other related sciences.”
Haplogroup I1 is a “native European” group “because its frequencies outside Europe are extremely small.”
Men belonging to I1 are “the descendants of Paleo-European population.”
I1 “is concentrated mainly in the north of Europe” in Scandinavia. Populations exist in England (15.4%), Sicily (up to 18.75%) and in the center of European Russia (up to 17%).
The presence of I1 is due to Viking and Norman activity, although “ancient migrations are also possible.” According to the author, Normandy has an I1 population of 11.9%.
The “history of population of haplogroup I1 is more complicated than a simple expansion from Scandinavia, and it may include ancient relations between the Finno-Ugric peoples of Eastern Europe and the ancestors of German-speaking Scandinavians.”
He discounts much Varangian influence. The “Varangians had to be excluded from the list of possible contenders who could have left a significant mark in the gene pool of eastern Europe.” He mentions the Volga River as a possible route, and the Transvolga and the basin of Vychegda as places where some of the Varangians may have lived.
He quotes the Gothic historian Jordanes, author of The Origin and Deeds of the Goths.
Soon after Geberich, king of the Goths, had passed away from human deeds, Hermanaric, the noblest of the Amali, succeeded to the throne. He subdued many warlike peoples of the north and made them obey his laws.”
The author mentions several groups, including the Goths of Ermanaric, Amali clan, Golthescytha, Thiudos, Inaunxis, Vasinabroncae, Merens, Mordens, Imniscaris, Rogas, Tadzans, Athaul, Navego, Bubegenae and Coldae.
The Empire of the Ermanaric is another option, though the author doubts it ever existed. The “existence of such [a] vast empire is quite doubtful.”
He also brings up archaeological evidence from the Chernyakhov culture from the third century AD and the mountain population of the Crimean Tartars (Tata) and the Greeks of Azov. It is “quite possible that they were the speakers of [a] Paleo-European language.”
Place names are also used in his survey, using “ancient substrate toponyms of unknown origin (i.e. non-Uralic and non-Indo-European).”
Examples of substrate toponyms with endings:
– ga (Yuzga – branch of Moksha, Arga – branch of Alatyr, Vyazhga – branch of Moksha and Volga)
– ta (Pushta – branch of Satis, etc.);
– sha (Ksha – branch of Sura, Shoksha);
– ma (Losma – branch of Moksha, Shalma – branch of Sivin);
– da (Amorda)
Tretyakov PN offered a hypothesis that this Paleo-European language belonged to the creators of the Neolithic cultures of the comb ceramics (CCC)
alien Nordic population of Sami subrace
Upper Volga culture
culture of Maglemose
Askola and Suomusjärvi
Maglemose in England
the main occupation of this population was hunting for reindeer.
In 10th millennium BC people of Ahrensbur-gian culture began to move following two directions of the retreating ice cover – to the north-west and north-east, passing along both sides of the Baltic glacial lake (Fig. 6).
that most high diversity of haplotypes of I1-M253 – a is fixed it in Denmark , which is the starting point of people of Arensburgian culture.
the relationship between . . . Ahrensburgian and Swiderian cultures [using] anthropological, linguistic and genetic [fields]
the main food of local population – reindeer – following after it; that caused the migration of Paleolithic hunters. The colonization of Scandinavia, Baltic and Central Eastern Europe was started.
In the Mesolithic haplogroup I1 faced the eastern newcomers, who related confidently with haplogroup N1c. They had Uraloid appearance (with a Mongoloid and Caucasoid features). Spreading of Uralic languages in Eastern Europe is connected with N1c.
Relations between the newcomers and aboriginal population were generally peaceful; it is evident from mixed graves and gradual appearance of mixed anthropological types.
Roots of haplogroup I1 evidently came from such Paleolithic cultures as Ahrensburgian and Swiderian
The main activities of carriers of haplogroup I1 were hunting and gathering.
Initial anthropological appearance . . . sharply dolichocranic, broad-faced, tall Caucasoid type.
“Carriers of haplogroup I1 were speakers of Paleo-European language, which didn’t belong to the Uralic or Indo-European families. Its traces were revealed in the European toponimy and in the Sami language.”
I1 in the center of the Russian Plain is the consequence of ancient migrations of Paleolithic population of Europe, which led to the foundation of Upper Volga culture (the 5th-6th millenniums BC).
metallurgy and productive farming
He mentions the book The Russian Gene Pool of the Russian Plain by E.V. Balanovskaya and O.P. Balanovsky.
the territory between Volga and Oka rivers.
Chuvashia (7.5% I1), Kirov region (no data), Vologda region (17% I1), Archangelsk region (14.2%), in Karelia (8.6% I1) and in the west of Smolensk region (2% I1).