He was an enemy and persecutor of the Puritans and a staunch defender of the divine right of kings, a key concept consistently propagated by Charles the First, often putting both men at odds with Parliament.
“It is commonplace to observe that Christmas is increasingly a pagan festival,” wrote Matt Ridley for the Times of London. Ridley explained the pagan foundations of this major holiday, as well as other traditional Christian holidays like Easter and Halloween. He concluded, however, that the pagan origins do not make the spirit of the holidays “less worthwhile.”
Read it in The Seattle Times today, that fruitcakes can be traced back to ancient Egypt. The Egyptians placed some sort of dessert similar to a fruitcake in the tombs for something sweet to eat in the afterlife, so the story goes.
But in researching further, I’ve discovered this may not be true. Could be “ fake news.”
It is often referred to as legend and lore, which means physical examples are probably hard to come by and may not exist. I wonder if there are any surviving recipes on papyrus stashed somewhere.
|Culinary lore claims that ancient Egyptians placed an early version of the fruitcake on the tombs of loved ones, perhaps as food for the afterlife. But fruitcakes were not common until Roman times, when pomegranate seeds, pine nuts and barley mash were mixed together to form a ring-shaped dessert.|
It was popular among soldiers, who had to journey to faraway lands and no doubt often went hungry.
|Prized for its portability and shelf life, Roman soldiers often brought fruitcake with them to the battlefields.|
|Crusaders and hunters were reported to have carried this type of cake to sustain themselves over long periods of time away from home.|
Thankfully, in the 21st century Western world there is no need for fruitcakes.
In December of 1917 the soldiers of the 42nd Division, all previously serving in National Guard units, were in France, waiting for training.
Among the men was my great grandmother’s brother, huddling for warmth with the thousands of fellow American soldiers in France, preparing to go to war.
The division’s 27,000 troops had started moving from Camp Albert Mills — often shortened to just Camp Mills — on Long Island to France in October. The last elements of the 26-state division — the 168th Infantry Regiment from Iowa, which included my great grandmother’s young brother Leslie — had reached France at the end of November.
The 42nd Division had been formed by taking National Guard units from 26 states and combining them into a division that stretched across the country “like a rainbow” in the words of the division chief of staff, Colonel Douglas MacArthur.
The largest elements were four regiments from Ohio, Iowa, Alabama and New York organized in two brigades of two regiments and supporting units.
By Christmas 1917 the division’s elements were located in a number of villages northeast of the city of Chaumont, about 190 miles east of Paris. The men had hiked there from Vaucouleurs where they had originally been deposited by train.
The 168th Infantry, from the Iowa National Guard, hosted 400 French children at a Christmas celebration in the village of Rimaucourt, where they had been stationed since November. Two American soldiers dressed like Santa Claus gave presents to the French children and a French band played the Star Spangled Banner. The kids received dolls, horns and balloons, Lt. Hugh S. Thompson recalled in his memoir Trench Knives and Mustard Gas.
The 168th didn’t eat as well as the 165th on Christmas day, according to Thompson. “Scrawny turkeys and a few nuts were added to the usual rough menu,” he recalled.
While Christmas 1917 was a good one for most soldiers of the Rainbow Division, the next week went down in the division’s memory as “The Valley Forge Hike.”
It was 30 to 40 miles from where the division’s troops had celebrated Christmas to the town of Rolampont, the location of the U.S. Army’s Seventh Training Area.
Today you can drive the route in an hour. In 1917 it took the soldiers four days on foot. The march was miserable, according to the book The Story of the Rainbow Division.
The soldiers had “scarcely any shoes except what they had on their feet, there was no surplus supply to speak of. Some of the men had no overcoats.”
The men walked into a mountain snowstorm. In some places the snow was three to four feet deep. Soldier’s shoes wore out. Some marched almost barefoot. Some left behind bloody trails in the snow.
Lt. Thompson recalled that the men in his unit were issued hobnailed boot: the soles were held by heavy nails. The problem, he said, was that the nails got cold and the men’s feet froze too.
“Bleak expanses of icey geography appeared and vanished in monotonous fields between villages,” he recalled. “Legs ached, pack straps cut into shoulders, unmercifully men fell out, exhausted.”
At night the men huddled in the barns and haylofts of the French villages to keep warm.
The mule and horse drawn supply wagons got stuck on the icy roads and men had to move their best animals from wagon to wagon to get them unstuck, Father Duffy recalled.
For three days the men in the 165th Infantry Regiment’s Third battalion had no food, according to Kilmer, and when rations caught up to the men they got coffee and a bacon sandwich, or raw potatoes and bread.
“The hike made Napoleon’s retreat from Moscow look like a Fifth Avenue Parade,” one New York officer remembered later.
“The men plowed over the hills and thru the snow, enduring hardships which are not pleasant to remember,” wrote Reppy Alison, the author of a book about the 1st Battalion 166th Infantry.
Medics reported cases of mumps and pneumonia as the temperatures dropped below zero. Hundreds of men fell out– 700 at least and 200 of the New Yorkers–but most made it to Rolampont.
As the 165th Infantry arrived, the regimental band struck up “In the Good old Summertime”.
By New Year’s Day the division’s elements had arrived in Rolampont, and along with a new year they got a new commander.
Major General William Mann, the former head of the Militia Bureau, the equivalent of today’s Chief of the National Guard Bureau, had taken command of the division at Camp Mills.
But Mann, who was 63 in 1917, couldn’t meet the physical standards for officer laid down by General John J. Pershing, commander of the American Expeditionary Forces.
He was replaced by 55-year old Brig. Gen. Charles T. Menoher.
As 1918 began Menoher and the soldiers of the Rainbow division began gearing up to go to go into the trenches.
FIRST KING OF THE DANES
The Bluetooth name is an Anglicized version of the Scandinavian word Blåtand, sometimes spelled Blåtann. In Old Norse it’s Blátǫnn. The word is the epithet of the tenth-century king Harald Bluetooth who united dissonant Danish tribes into a single kingdom and, according to legend, introduced Christianity. The Bluetooth logo is a combination of Harald’s initials, using what are called the Hagall (ᚼ) and Bjarkan (ᛒ) characters.
Walter Rogers was his name. He was from South Dakota and stationed on the USS Oklahoma.
“He was just a typical teenager. He loved cars and all things mechanical. It was during the Depression, and no one had any money. We were a very poor family, but he was an ambitious teenager. And he would scrounge around for parts for a car. And he finally was able to accumulate enough parts to make a functioning automobile.”
Scientists used mitochondrial DNA and dental analysis to identify Rogers’ remains.
My ancestor James brought his loom with him when he and the family left for America in 1790.
My great grandmother’s mother was born into an Ulster Presbyterian family. They came to America from Northern Ireland in 1790 and likely migrated from Scotland before that, settling in Ireland.
The Hill family, based on oral traditions and DNA evidence, likely came from Scotland during America’s colonial days. We are closely related to the Johnsons-Johnstons-Johnstowns of southwest Scotland.
|August 25, 1560: Led by John Knox, the reformed Church of Scotland is established on Protestant lines. The Scottish parliament accepts the Calvinistic Scots Confession, forbids the mass, and declares the pope has no jurisdiction in Scotland.|
But the story doesn’t end there!
|The following year things were complicated (to say the least) by the return from France of Mary Queen of Scots to assume her throne and adhere personally to the Catholicism in which she had been raised.|