My Y chromosome is Viking, with origins in Scandinavia. It is known as I1 (eye-one). My maternal grandfather’s group is R1a, also Viking. And now I have learned via 23 and Me that my mother’s mitochondrial DNA, part of group T1, may have come to England with the Vikings.
Although T1 is relatively rare in Europe today, it appears to have been much more common at some times in the past. Though it is present in only 2% of the modern English population, T1 was found at levels of 23% in DNA extracted from skeletons buried in Norwich, England during the 10th century AD.
But the complete absence of T1 even earlier, in DNA extracted from the skeletal remains of Anglo-Saxon Britons dating to the 5th and 6th centuries, suggests that the haplogroup did not arrive in England with the original agricultural expansion. It may have come with the Viking invaders who began menacing the coastal settlements of Britain and Ireland in AD 793.
“I think that when you die, you should be able to hold on to your history and who you are and for others to know that here is this person and not just be put into an unmarked grave and no one knows your name. We all deserve our life history and for people to know who we are and where we are.”
— Dr. Jennifer Love, a forensic anthropologist who works to identify people who have died
I already knew that I was of European stock, but it’s nice to see a scientific breakdown. My blood is very German, more than I realized even just a few years ago.
My Mom’s paternal side came from there, so that’s not surprising. What is a revelation is that my paternal side has a good amount of German, too. Dad’s mother, maiden name Hay, hails from the German countryside, too. Thankfully Grandma’s older brother submitted some check swabs for analysis.
Previous research led me to believe that the name Hay had probably been a combination of variants, slowly changing over time to be more American, more English: Hoh, Hoeh, and Höh.
This lead me to a close database match and a family tree: a distant cousin with the name Kettering had traced his family back to the Rhineland-Palatinate in western Germany.
The name Hay had been adopted sometime probably in the late 18th century or the early 19th, though it was not universally used by family members. Some decided to use Hoeh instead.
The original surname, Höh, with the umlaut, was likely adopted from a place name or names. Near where the Ketterings hailed from are the towns of Höheinöd, Höhfröschen and Höheischweiler. They are clustered in the same vicinity in Südwestpfalz, near the border with France.
of Jones County, North Carolina
& His Mother Sarah in Pennsylvania
It looks like we finally have a breakthrough on the Hill family. Combining the power of DNA and a bit of genealogical detective work, I have found a connection between two of the genetic lines in the Hill DNA Project that are clearly related. But how was unknown until some of the puzzle was unraveled today by the last will and testament of one Samuel Hill, a resident of North Carolina. I’m guessing that Samuel Hill is the grandfather or uncle of Joseph Hill, husband of Mary Warren, as detailed in the lineage of Kit 74401.
Samuel Hill of Jones County, North Carolina mentions his mother, Sarah of Bucks County, Pennsylvania, in his will, dated 1772. Bucks County is where I happened to find a group of people named Hill and another named Crooks living in close proximity to one another. It was a hunch that has apparently paid off. One of my ancestor James Hill’s sons is named John Crooks Hill. Now there is another piece of evidence pointing to Bucks County, PA as the likely birthplace of James Hill, husband of Sarah ‘Sallie’ Tidd, who lived to the age of 99 and died in Ohio.
The obituary of Joseph Hill, a distant cousin shown to be related to my Hill family by DNA, included some interesting details, possible clues as to where to track down more information. It was published in The Christian Index, a Baptist newspaper in Georgia,
How is this man, Joseph Hill, related? Born in North Carolina, he married a woman named Mary, surname Warren or Warner. She was born in Georgia. The DNA proves that we are cousins. But the connection, the paper trail, remains elusive. Was he a brother of my ancestor James Hill?
Richard III, noted as a ruthless tyrant by many, including Shakespeare, was king for just two years. He died in 1485 during the Battle of Bosworth Field and was buried at a church in Leicester, England. He was the last English king to die in battle.
The ruins of the church, long forgotten, were surmised to be under a parking lot.
Sure enough, they uncovered floor tiles and window frames from the church — and a skeleton that had signs of head trauma, an arrowhead lodged in the spine, and showed evidence of scoliosis, characteristics consistent with reports of Richard III’s appearance and his cause of death.
Although still unconfirmed, a debate about where the body should be re-buried has begun. Rather than Leicester, some “think Richard should be reburied in York: The king was fond of the city and was purportedly building a chapel there before he died.” However, the University of Leicester has jurisdiction.
Today I received notice that my DNA, specifically part of my Y chromosome, had been examined once again. Years ago I submitted some DNA samples, primarily for genealogical research, from my saliva to Family Tree DNA.
All testing I have done with this company is what’s called STR. Another type of testing, abbreviated as SNP and pronounced snip, I have avoided, for numerous reasons.
Thus I was surprised to read a message that results from a “Deep Clade” test were ready. I never ordered any SNP testing. It doesn’t show up on my list of previous orders either.
It’s very odd.
Since I was never charged and am now confirmed as M253+, meaning that I carry the mutation which defines a group originating in northern Europe, called haplogroup I1 (eye-won), I am not complaining, just curious.
Apparently M253 was the only SNP tested.